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Book: The Models of Skill Acquisition and Expertise Development (Kindle)

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About the book

The book offers condensed summaries of twenty-three major models of skill acquisition and expertise development presented by leading researchers during the last half a century of classic and new research. This book presents new researchers in learning, training, cognitive sciences, or education disciplines with a big picture starting point for their literature review journey. The book presents an easy-to-understand taxonomy of twenty-three models which can give new researchers a good bird’s eye view of existing models and theories, based on which they can decide which direction to dig further. The reviews in this book are complemented with over 200 authentic sources that a researcher read for a detailed and deeper dive and set the direction for further exploration.

Target readers

Research students and scholars: Ideally, this book is meant for research students, researchers, and scholars (new and seasoned) who are researching the areas of human performance, education, expertise, skill development, instructional design, cognitive sciences, learning theory, and training design, and similar disciplines. Ironically, most of the new researchers do not get a good handle on where to start their literature review and which direction to go for more in-depth exploration. That is where this book may act as a time saver for those new scholars or research students in training, education, and learning disciplines who are either new to these disciplines or who do not have any prior experience in conducting a literature review in these disciplines.

Academics and teaching staff: Additionally, academics or professors who are teaching courses or subjects in the above areas may find this book useful enough to recommend this book to their students to plan for a detailed literature review in such areas.

Instructional designers and HR practitioners: This book may also be helpful to professional instructional designers, learning specialists, trainers, and consultants who are interested in designing and delivering their programs or training sessions based on the understanding of mechanisms of human performance improvement, the process of human skill acquisition and theories of expertise development. HR specialists, learning designers, instructional designers, and performance consultants are trying to structure their training and learning programs for employee development around some established models or best practices. This book clarifies the mechanisms of skill acquisition and expertise development, which can be used to design research-based curriculums in educational or corporate settings.

Book outline

Chapter 1 of the book elaborates on how the processes of learning, skill acquisition, and expertise development are interwoven.

Chapter 2 presents a classification of various models reviewed in literature in five categories.

Chapter 3 describes twelve models of skill and expertise acquisition which are represented in the form of stages. used frequently in learning, training, and performance literature. The chapter also discusses the implications of each model toward developing skills and expertise of a less proficient individual to a higher level of proficiency briefly.

Chapter 4 reviews practice-, time- or task-based models which are theories or models suggesting that acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise, and performance improvement are a function of the nature of the practice, the amount of time spent on the task, and task type.

Chapter 5 presents the factor-based models, which are based on theories or models suggesting the interplay of several factors that influence the acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise, and performance improvement.

Chapter 6 embarks on describing expert modeling-based models which are theories or models suggesting modeling an expert through elicitation or guidance for the acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise, and performance improvement.

Chapter 7 covers some newer movements toward cognition-based models which are theories or models focusing on mechanisms of cognition learning for the acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise, and performance improvement.

Chapter 8 concludes the book by integrating views from various thought leaders to explain a famous staged skill acquisition model.

Table of Content

CHAPTER 1:  LEARNING, SKILL ACQUISITION AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT

1.1 Learning and Performance
1.2 Expertise
1.3 Expertise Development

CHAPTER 2: CLASSIFYING THE MODELS OF SKILL, PROFICIENCY, AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER 3: STAGE-BASED MODELS

3.1 Conscious Competence Theory
3.2 Fitts & Posner (1967) Model of skill acquisition
3.3 Anderson (1982) ACT-R Theory of Cognition
3.4 Ackerman (1988) Theory of Ability Determinants of Skill Acquisition
3.5 VanLehn (1996) Cognitive Skill Acquisition Theory
3.6 Kim et al. (2013) Theory of skill retention
3.7 Vygotsky (1978) Zone of Proximal Development
3.8 Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1986) Stages of Skill Acquisition
3.9 Alexander (1997) Model of Domain Learning
3.10 Hoffman (1998) Proficiency Scale
3.11 Jacobs (1997) Levels of Human Competence
3.12 Rosenberg (2012) Novice to Expert Transition

CHAPTER 4: PRACTICE, TIME OR TASK-BASED MODELS

4.1 Blooms (1968) Mastery Learning Model
4.2 Ericsson et al. (1993) Deliberate Practice Model of Expert Performance
4.3 van Merriënboer et al. (1992) 4-Component Model of complex skill acquisition
4.4 Klein (1993) Recognition-Primed Decision Making (RPD) Model for Rapid Decision Making Expertise

CHAPTER 5: FACTOR-BASED MODELS

5.1 Sternberg (1999) Model of Intelligence as expertise development
5.2 Langan-Fox et al. (2002) Skilled Performance Theory

CHAPTER 6: EXPERT MODELING-BASED MODELS

6.1 Collins (1989) Cognitive Apprenticeship Model
6.2 Lajoie (2003) Trajectory of Expertise
6.3 Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) Approach to Model Expertise
6.4 Vygotsky (1978) Zone of Proximal Development

CHAPTER 7: COGNITION-BASED MODELS

7.1 Spiro et al. (1990) Cognitive Flexibility Theory
7.2 Klein & Baxter (2oo9) Cognitive Transformation Theory

CHAPTER 8: PHASES OF SKILL ACQUISITION: INTEGRATING VARIOUS VIEWS

8.1 Novice
8.2 Advanced Beginner
8.3 Competent
8.4 Proficient
8.5 Expert
8.6 Mastery
8.7 Relevance of Stages in Professional Jobs

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